I was inspired to write a short series on how applications get evaluated throughout the academic process- for vet school, internship, residency, and faculty positions. Realize that these are idiosyncratic- my process is definitely different from other people’s processes. Nonetheless, I think it may be helpful/insightful. Enjoy these for the next two weeks!
Beyond just chit-chatting with people during your interview what, exactly, do you say? How do you present yourself in the most realistic light? I don’t say ‘most positive’ light because I believe you need to be authentic during your interview. If you present yourself as different than you are, you may lead to a bad decision about fit being made. So, you need to present yourself authentically, and discover if this place could be a good fit for you. What do you say?
First, as always, be honest. If you are looking for a faculty position because you enjoy research, but are not very enthusiastic about classroom teaching, you can communicate that in a positive way. “What is your approach to teaching?” “I enjoy teaching small group and one-on-one settings so I can really engage with the students on a personal level.” If asked very specifically, be honest. “How do you feel about teaching large lecture courses?” “Honestly, it’s not my preferred teaching setting,” and then you have two choices: “…but I enjoy a challenge and would be willing to tackle it with good mentoring,” or “…and I would rather not spend a large amount of my time with those types of courses.”
While being honest, be positive. If you are looking for a new position because your current institution is terrible, put a positive spin on it. “Why are you interested in our institution?” “I really like the way you approach teaching- encouraging different teaching strategies and elective classes.” Contrast with, “You don’t micromanage the faculty constantly or overwork them.”
Second, ask all the questions about how the place works. We will have a separate post with a list of questions, but try to plan out what you want to ask each person or group on your itinerary. As an interviewer, it is incredibly frustrating to say, “What questions do you have?” and get nothing back. You need to ask questions to make sure the place is a good fit, to demonstrate your interest and enthusiasm, and to demonstrate to them that you Know What You Are Getting Into. If you don’t ask about on-call responsibilities for a clinical position, for example, they may wonder if you know that this is expected. Conversely, if you obsess over on-call responsibilities, they may assume you don’t actually want to do on-call. It can be a difficult line to walk. Spend time before the interview coming up with these questions and find ways to ask them in a positive light.
Finally, answer their questions in an honest but not necessarily exhaustive way. If you find yourself talking for more than about 2 minutes, you are probably giving an excessively long answer. Provide an answer to the question and no more- they will ask clarifying questions if they feel it is important. Don’t be evasive or coy or abrupt, but you don’t need to give a long, rambling answer to every question. Identify what, exactly, is being asked, and answer that with enough detail to demonstrate you understand the issue at hand.
For example, if asked, “What are your concerns with coming here?” you might answer, “It seems like there aren’t a lot of systems and protocols in place, so we will be figuring things out as we go. I have only been places with a lot of systems but, even there, I helped create some systems and processes so I look forward to helping to put those in place here.”
When answering questions, an effective strategy is “You do… I do.” For example, if asked, “Do you think we need an MRI for a neuro service?” you could reply, “Well, an MRI is really essential for good neurologic imaging. However, if that isn’t possible, I can see a service where medical neurology is the focus. I have spent the past 3 years focusing on neuromuscular diseases and could build a strong referral base on that experience, even without an MRI.”
Remember, the point is to find a good FIT. If they want you to teach a lot of large lecture classes, and you just want to do research, will you really be happy there? “But Vetducator, I just want ANY job!” Well, as a veterinary specialist, you generally have your pick of jobs, so you at least need to find one which won’t be terrible for you. And, ideally, you will find a job which is a good fit, which will lead to career satisfaction and life happiness. Who wouldn’t want that?
I heard a story from a fellow faculty member about an interview they conducted. The candidate showed up on time, but barely knew their interview schedule, didn’t know who they were speaking with, and seemed to barely know the position for which they were interviewing. Needless to say, the candidate didn’t get an offer for the position. During an interview, you need to show engagement and be enthusiastic. One of the best and easiest ways to do this is to do your research beforehand.
Research is essential so that you know the right questions to ask, who the people are, what the primary concerns and goals of the program are, what landmines you may need to navigate, and what problem areas you may want to assure yourself about.
Know the right questions to ask. If the class size is 120, and you ask about classrooms that fit 90, that indicates you are out of touch.
Who the people are. What is their role in the organization? The Associate Dean of Research is not going to talk as much about curriculum as the Associate Dean of Students.
Program goals and concerns. Are they trying to increase research? Expand to a satellite clinic? Train up qualified staff? These are all weighing on the minds of the interviewers.
Landmines. If you know there is a sore topic, you can still bring it up, but be diplomatic about it. The only general one I know of is to not bring up pay unless the hiring manager brings it up.
Problem areas. How are the finances/funding? Is the place solvent? How is the leadership? Are people happy and, if not, why not? Again, be diplomatic about these kinds of questions.
Now that you see the importance of pre-visit research, how do you do it? My primary method is via the institution’s website. Sometimes this is extremely frustrating- one position for which I interviewed had almost nothing useful on their website. However, they at least had their mission statement, which I was able to tie in with my presentation and some interview discussions. Most of the time, there is plenty of information on the website about the individuals you are meeting, news about current trends in the institution, etc. Mine the website for as much information as you can.
If the website is spartan, or you are curious for more information, you can comb the general internet. I found some useful information about one school on student information forums . I find this to be relatively tiresome and low-yield, but worth trying if you have the inclination.
It is vitally important that you understand the program, the job, and the people before you do an onsite interview. Failing to plan is planning to fail.
I was on a hike with a friend who is getting ready for a high-stakes interview for grad school. We were talking about various questions which may be asked during the interview. After a few of these back-and-forth, they said, “I’m not sure we should be doing this. I mean, shouldn’t I just go to the interview and answer naturally what comes to mind?” I imagine some of you may have similar thoughts, so I want to talk about the assumptions and misperceptions that contribute to this idea.
Assumption one: Prepared answers cannot be genuine and honest. You may believe that interviewers want spontaneous answers because they are more genuine, but this is not necessarily so. You can prepare good answers to questions which are 100% genuine and honest. In fact, your answers SHOULD be 100% genuine. It doesn’t happen often, but twice now I have encountered interviewees whom I felt were giving the answer they thought I wanted, not their actual genuine answer. Whatever answer you prepare, make sure it is true to you.
Assumption two: Interviewers want spontaneous answers. Most people do not have much experience with interviews. As a consequence, spontaneous answers are unlikely to be particularly GOOD answers. When I ask a question in an interview, I want the most representative answer the interviewee can produce. It is unlikely, in that small window, in that high-pressure context, that an interviewee can come up with a great example to answer a question. I want interviewees to have good, genuine, substantive answers. I don’t want it highly practiced and polished, but if the interviewee has at least considered the question before, they can give a good answer.
Assumption three: I don’t need to prepare. You do realize that others applying for these positions WILL be preparing, don’t you? My question to you is: do you want the position or don’t you? Some of the others who are interviewing ARE preparing, and their interview will be better as a consequence. If you want the position, you should prepare.
Assumption four: Preparation warps the whole idea of the interview. The interview, like the application, is intended to distinguish those applicants who get a position and those who do not. Do you think that an applicant who puts effort into the process will be viewed more or less favorably? The application and interview indicates how hard and well the person will work in the position. Someone who puts more effort into the process, who does a better job, will be more likely to be chosen. This is a feature of the interview, not a bug: we WANT to identify those who put more work into the process, because that indicates they are more likely to have what it takes to be successful in the position for which they are interviewing.
Preparing for an interview is an important, integral aspect of the process. It’s simple: those who prepare will do a better interview and are more likely to get a position. If you want to be successful, you must prepare and practice. After all, you wouldn’t take an exam without studying, would you? Preparing for an interview is no more cheating than studying for an exam would be.
Moving on from one step of your professional life to the next is exciting! You’re going forward, pursuing your passion, hopefully at an institution you like. There is invariably down time between positions and there are important Work and Life details you need to take care of. We are in the middle of a move as I write this, which is both exciting and scary. Here are some suggestions to help you make these transitions less scary, specifically with regards to Time, Housing, Moving, Insurance, and Licenses.
Between undergrad and vet school you have at least a whole summer, between vet school and internship at least a month and possibly more, between internship and residency a couple of weeks or more, and between residency and faculty position as much or as little time as you like.
Between undergrad and vet school, work or travel. There’s not much point in trying to prepare for vet school- that’s what vet school is for.
Between vet school and internship, travel or, if they’ll have you, stay on at the institution from which you graduated. I spent an additional 3 weeks after graduation hanging around the surgery service acting as a super senior or a junior intern, depending on your perspective. It was a great experience and helped prepare me for my role as an intern.
Between internship and residency, study. The more you know about your discipline before you start, the better off you will be. Of course, they’ll teach you what you need to know during your program, but the faster you get up to speed, the more you will learn. I read the Vet Clinics of North America issue on anesthesia as well as Physiology and Pharmacology in Anesthetic Practice and it was tremendously helpful.
Between residency and faculty, travel. You already know enough to be an entry-level specialist, and you can’t do any meaningful work in the amount of time you have. You will rarely be so unencumbered as you are once you finish your residency. I have _never_ been able to travel between positions and I wish that I had.
Once you know where you are going, you need to secure housing. This can be challenging in some college towns. For example, in Athens, if you didn’t have a place secured by April, you would be getting the scraps, and people who want the best places secure their lease in February. In contrast, in Phoenix, you can show up whenever and get almost any apartment you want. I encourage you to live within walking distance of the institution if at all possible. If you can also walk to the market and the pub, all the better. I like using Google Maps, Apartments.com, and Zillow to find places which would be a good fit.
Hopefully the lease of your current place is ending close to when you will be moving. If you need an extra week or two, you can always ask your landlord. In some place, such as Athens, this will be problematic- almost every lease turns over July 31st- but you can at least ask. If you need to leave your lease early, notify them as soon as possible and just pay the fee. In the best-case scenario, your current lease ends the day after you pack everything up and move out.
Use this opportunity to REDUCE YOUR SHIT. I am really serious about this. I showed up for my residency with two duffel bags and that is it. When we left Athens, we gave away almost everything in our 2400-square foot house and it was WONDERFUL. I assure you, your life will be so much better with less stuff. Particularly when you go to an internship- it’s only for a year. Do you really want to be schlepping all of this stuff all over the country? No. Get rid of it. Donate it to friends, charity, or sell it on Craigslist. You may NOT rent a storage unit because that is the height of ridiculousness.
Once you have less stuff, your options for moving are: DIY, hire help, or a combination of the two. I have never heard a story of hiring a company to move things which ends well. So, in general, I would advise not hiring a moving company entirely. To load your shipping device, you can get friends to help or hire local movers. We have had great success hiring local movers– they are relatively inexpensive, fast, and professional.
For shipping, you can rent your own truck (like a U-Haul and other competitors) or a device which someone else drives (PODS or U-Pack). After driving a U-Haul for 2000 miles along I-40, I decided my life was worth more than I was saving by driving myself. Plus the gas cost was incredible. Hiring U-Pack was about the same price as renting a U-Haul for a one-way trip, and was much less stressful.
What happens if you get into a car accident when driving to your new home? What if something catastrophic happens to your stuff in transit? How do you handle renter’s insurance? Do you have to re-insure your car in your new state?
Let’s start with health insurance. You should check with your current position about when your coverage ends. Does coverage end on your last day or the end of the month? In any event, you should have an option to enroll in COBRA, which allows you to extend coverage. This extension should be enough time to cover you until your next position coverage starts. If you can’t get COBRA, you may need to research individual coverage for the gap time.
Stuff insurance. Why do you even have this? Do you own something besides a house or car worth more than $1000? Why? You already downsized your stuff, so you shouldn’t need insurance for it. If it all goes up in a fireball, that would be sad but not catastrophic. You can pack any small, expensive items (instruments, computer, guns, etc.) in the car you personally drive.
Renter’s insurance is straight up absurd. Why the hell should the apartment owners care if we have insurance to cover our very own stuff? I’m not going to sue them if I get broken into. I wish I could opt out of this, but, unfortunately, in a lot of towns, this is required. It is relatively inexpensive so, if you need to get it, find the cheapest policy that satisfies the rental company. Alternatively, several times now I have convinced the rental companies that my umbrella liability policy is sufficient. I strongly recommend umbrella insurance for everyone so, if you have it, you may not need separate renter’s insurance.
Car insurance coverage is generally dependent on the zip code where the car is garaged. Obviously, the insurance company doesn’t know when you move. But, if you get into an accident, they may make a fuss about it. I would recommend talking to your insurance company/agent about this when you are researching moving.
You will need a license to practice veterinary medicine wherever you go after graduation. Some states have arrangements where you can get a ‘faculty license’, which has pretty minimal requirements for someone working at a university. Many places have a single point person to help facilitate this. Figure out the license situation before you leave for your new position.
There are a lot of moving parts involved in moving to a new position. To keep it simple, follow these rules: reduce your stuff, make a plan ahead of time, don’t leave anything to the last minute. The sooner you figure things out, the less stressful the actual move will be.
Possibly due to poor preparation, possibly due to nerves, and possibly due to ignorance, people applying for and interviewing for faculty positions routinely make mistakes. Most of them are minor, some of them are major. Here are some I have seen (and a few I’ve done myself). Hopefully, by reading this, you can avoid them.
1) Mentioning the spousal hire at any point before getting an offer in hand. Just don’t do this. You are interviewing for a job- focus on the job. You don’t want to bias anyone by making them think you will be a more complicated or difficult hire due to a spouse. You want them to evaluate you on your merits alone. Wait until you have an offer to mention the need for a spousal hire.
2) Aiming to be a +1 in your application materials. As mentioned before, the point of a faculty application is to get you an interview. You just need a decent CV, decent letter, and decent recommendations. You may be able to get a slight leg up on other applicants if you have amazing versions of any of these, but probably not. Most of the time, if you aim to be a +1, you will fail and become a -1.
4) Fleeing your current position. No one wants to hire a jaded, bitter, and angry faculty member. You need to be chasing something great at the place you are applying for, not fleeing something terrible. You MAY say your current position isn’t a great fit, but you MAY NOT say it is terrible and you just want to be anywhere else.
4.5) Talking badly about colleagues. This is often seen in conjunction with fleeing your current position. I don’t care if your mortal enemy works where you work, you cannot talk badly about them. This is the image you are painting of who you are as a faculty member. If you talk badly about current colleagues, that means you will talk badly of future colleagues. You MAY say you don’t communicate well with a certain person, but you MAY NOT say they are a monster and make your life hell.
5) Giving a bad job talk. This is separate from phoning it in, but often occurs concurrently. You need to practice your presentation and make sure it is amazing. Most positions involve teaching, after all. If you can’t teach, you can’t do the job.
6) Being a boor. This covers a wide range of sins, including ordering numerous alcoholic drinks, not engaging people, being rude or dismissive, not smiling, not meeting people’s eyes, saying inappropriate things, and other unprofessional behavior. I’m not sure what to say to get you to not do this. Practice being a better person, I suppose?
7) Not having a clue. If you didn’t do your interview/site visit prep, or if you want a tenure-track position but are interviewing for a clinical-track position, or if you don’t know what the institution is about, you will turn people off. Do your prep work and make sure you actually want the job.
8) Being weird. Look, I am all for being outside of normal, but not during an interview. Dress conservatively, practice your conversation and interview skills, and don’t go off the rails in conversation topics. I once had an applicant who OVER-prepared and wanted to show it off (aiming for a +1) and, as a consequence, we didn’t get to talk about things that were actually important for the job.
I could probably go on. This isn’t intended to be an exhaustive list, but to give you a general sense of how to act during a faculty interview. You want to demonstrate that you will be a good, positive, productive colleague. No department chair wants a Project or a Problem Child. The more you can show that you get along with people and will do a good job, the better.
I have been putting off writing this post for a while because it’s just so overwhelming. All of your application materials have one job: to get you the interview. The interview is the high-stakes encounter when you are applying for a faculty job. The decision by the search committee is largely based on your performance during the interview. In addition to general interview advice and preparatory research, we have to talk about what to say, how do to a great presentation, and what to ask. I have a separate post planned for the presentation, so let’s focus on the other two domains.
What to say
In general, you want answers to be meaningful but not expansive. If you are giving an answer longer than 2 minutes, it’s probably too long. You can leave them wanting more and allow them to ask follow-up questions. For example, you will always get the question, “Why this institution?” You should be prepared for this. Instead of giving an in-depth analysis based on your extensive research which touches on all the things you know about it, you can start with a highlights reel. “Well the faculty all seem to have a good quality of life, I hear the students are keen and engaged, and the work done in my discipline by the folks here has been notable.” Now they can ask follow-up questions if they like.
Do not give excessively short, clipped answers which leave the questioner with nowhere to go. Faculty interviews are almost never a series-of-question rapid-fire sort of affair. They are usually casual and conversational. If you approach it like a conversation- they ask a question, you answer, you ask a question, they answer, it will be a more natural flow.
Be positive. For god’s sake don’t say you want the job because your current job sucks. You must maintain a positive approach throughout. I don’t care if you are being bullied in your current position- you want to go to this new job because it is great, not because your old job is terrible. Avoid this temptation. I understand it can be hard- I have faced it myself- but you must remain positive.
Be specific. This is up to your preparatory research and conversations you have throughout the interview. If you meet with someone at the beginning of day one who says something which intrigues you, such as “It’s easy to do research with undergrads here because of our undergrad research office,” bring that up in subsequent discussions. “Well, Dr. Jones mentioned your undergrad research office, and that is a distinct interest of mine as well.” Speaking in generalities will not convince the committee that you want THIS job, just A job. You have to be SPECIFIC.
You do I do. An easy and effective formula for any interaction is: “You do this thing well. It matches what I do well.” For example, if they have an active learning approach (or want to start one), you can say, “I understand you are encouraging faculty to engage in active learning modalities. I taught a course last year which was primarily a flipped classroom, from which I gained a lot of experience in how to do active learning.” Take what they give you- what are they excited about- and reflect it back with how you can enhance that.
What to ask
Remember, you are interviewing this institution as much as they are interviewing you. The goal is to find the best fit, not necessarily the objectively “best” institution. So you need to ask some serious, incisive questions which will help you get a real sense for the place.
What are your challenges? This can be framed a variety of ways, such as “What don’t you like about working here” and “What would you change about the job”. The point is you want to find out what existing faculty members believe the current problems are. EVERY institution has its problems. The question isn’t “Do you have problems?”, the question is, “Are the problems you have ones I can cope with or not?” Hopefully, you know this about yourself. If not, reflect on it more.
What do you like about working here? This is the flip side of the first question, and hopefully elucidates the strengths of the institution. Again, the goal isn’t to hear, “Everything is perfect!” but rather to hear what specific things the current faculty and administration like about the institution. Do these things align with what you think is important in a job?
What is your ideal candidate? This will help you determine if what they are looking for is what you want to do. If they say, “Someone who will really engage with the students on a personal level” and you struggle to learn students’ names and want to spend time on research, maybe this isn’t the best fit. Follow up/alternative: What do you want this candidate to bring to the program/institution?
What is the next step of the process? You need to know the timeline for decision-making. They may also tell you how many other candidates there are and where you are in the order of interviews. This is essential information if you are interviewing at multiple institutions in the same span of time. If your top pick isn’t making a choice for 3 more months, and you get an offer before then, will you be willing to wait?
The scope of the information about the faculty interview cannot be covered in a single post or even several. I will dedicate other posts to this topic, but I wanted to get the most important elements written before drilling down on some details or expanding on what is covered here. What do you think needs to be brought up during the faculty interview?
Regardless of the position to which you apply, if there is an interview, you need to prepare. Well, you don’t NEED to prepare. But others who are interviewing WILL prepare. Do you want to be competitive with those who are preparing? Then you need to prepare, as well. Failing to prep is prepping to fail. So let’s assume you actually want the position for which you are interviewing and let’s discuss what you need to do to prepare.
First, you have to know about the position to which you are applying. If it is a job, get the job description down cold. If it is for vet school, talk to every veterinarian you can about what it is like. If it is for an internship or residency, read the position description and talk to your mentors about the position in detail. I advised an anesthesia residency applicant this year by giving them a 2-3 sentence assessment of each program in which they were interested. If possible, talk to people currently in the program to get an insider’s look.
The website for the institution to which you are applying may be incredibly detailed and helpful or not so much. You should at least know their mission statement, what the program is like based on the official materials, and any other data you can find (e.g. applicant numbers or expectations). This should take at least 30 minutes and up to 2 hours, depending on how much data they have online. Mine that data. You won’t actually know what the position entails until you have done it, but you should know as much as possible so you can interact intelligently with the interviewers.
Second, you need to practice. You wouldn’t walk into an ice skating competition and expect to do well without practice, would you? Unless you have been going on interviews every week for the past few months, there is no life experience that has prepared you for an interview. So, practice. Get friends to ask you questions in a simulated setting. Studies have shown visualization activates similar pathways to actual practice, so run through questions and scenarios in your mind. The more you practice the specific skill of interviewing, the better.
Third, you need to study. Watch TED videos about effective interviews and discussion skills (the body language talk is revolutionary). Read forum posts about interviews. Read this blog from beginning to end, taking notes all along. Research potential interview questions and write down possible responses. You would study for months for the NAVLE, wouldn’t you? How is an interview dictating the next step of your professional life any less important?
I cannot impress this upon you enough: just waltzing into an interview isn’t going to impress anyone, and it will significantly harm your chances of a positive outcome. You’re a veterinary professional, for god’s sake; you’ve spent countless hours studying for classes and applying to programs and everything else involved in this demanding field! Don’t tell me for one second you can’t do interview prep. If every applicant did good interview prep, I would be over-the-moon happy. Please help make that happen.
The road to veterinary specialization is a long, arduous one. First, you have to get into vet school and excel there. Then you do post-graduate training: an internship (for clinical disciplines) and then a residency. Towards the end of your residency, you have to submit your credentials to demonstrate you are qualified to take the specialty exam. Everything leads up to the exam, which, if you pass, makes you a Board Certified Specialist.
Many board exams have a pass rate around 50%. So even AFTER all that arduous training, as well as studying for the exam, your odds of passing are like flipping a coin. Even very smart people sometimes don’t pass boards. Some people, unfortunately, never pass their board exam. Fortunately, passing is not random, and you can take steps to maximize your chance of success.
1) Kick ass during your residency. “Those who do the work do the learning.” This is an oft-repeated phrase for classroom teachers, but it applies here. If you phone in your rounds participation or your resident prep topics, you will have more to study prior to boards. Take every opportunity to learn during your program. Notice I don’t say ‘work harder’- everyone works hard during their residency. YOU can work smarter. You are earning low pay in a time-consuming, soul-crushing training program: get what you can from it.
2) Get perspective. I only spent 3 weeks at a human hospital during my residency, but I learned a tremendous amount during that time. My experiences during an anesthesia externship in Dublin and a critical care externship in Colorado dramatically improved my understanding of important, universal concepts. As much as possible, seek out opportunities to learn from a wide spectrum of people during your residency.
3) Get time off. Wherever you go after your residency, you NEED to negotiate for time off to study. This should be time off from clinics, teaching, and most other responsibilities. You need to be able to dedicate a solid 6-10 hours a day to studying, and you can’t do that if you’re preparing for a classroom course or covering on call time. This needs to be IN WRITING before you accept any job
4) Study seriously. Get organized. Don’t blow off days. Make progress every day. Find an accountability program or app if you need to. It seems redundant for me to say “be motivated,” but I have met many people studying for boards who do not seem particularly motivated. If this describes you, come up with some mechanisms which works for you. Play Minecraft and, during the Minecraft night, study. Read a Cracked article for every hour you study. I had to go to Jason’s Deli to study because otherwise I had too many distractions. Whatever you need to motivate you, do that.
5) Practice. Cooperate with others preparing for boards and give each other questions. They can help hold you accountable. Ask your mentors (or former mentors) for any practice questions they may have. When the anesthesia college used to do oral exams, my impression is that most people failed because they didn’t have a strategy, not because they lacked the knowledge.
The specialty board exam is the culmination of at least 10 years (and often much more) of higher education. Why would you not dedicate every single resource at your disposal to successfully passing? Work smart, learn from many people, have dedicated time to study, be serious about studying, and practice. It’s not a guarantee of passing, but it’s the best chance you have?
I’ve written a lot about the ideas you should express in letters of application, and even some specific suggestions on what to include. We’ve talked about what not to do and what goals you should have, but one of my editors suggested I write an actual nuts-and-bolts-how-to-style post about writing an application letter, so here you go. How to write an application letter in eight steps.
1) Sit down at your computer and open your word processing program
2) Write: To Members of the Selection Committee
3) Write: I am applying for <insert position>. I am currently <your professional role>
4) Write down everything you can think of about yourself which makes you an excellent candidate. Write down everything you can think of about your interest in the position. It should be many pages long
5) Trim. And trim. And trim. Take the best parts of what you have written in step 4. It needs to be one page, no more
6) Proofread. Edit, clean up sentences, make sure the grammar is correct. Make sure the ideas flow from one to the next
7) Give it to friends, family, mentors- anyone whose opinion you respect. Ask them to use Track Changes or similar to make changes and comments. Read all the comments and changes and take the ones you like
8) Read it again. Does every sentence serve a purpose? Is there any rambling? Do you use decisive wording or do you sound wishy-washy? Sharpen it
Now you are done. You have to do this for each step of your professional progression. Don’t refer back to what you wrote for vet school when you’re applying for internships. Start fresh. And remember Kaizen– continuous improvement. Each iteration should be better than the last. Have fun and good luck!